The complex and deeply rooted conflict between Palestine and Israel is a historical narrative marked by centuries of geopolitical, religious, and cultural intricacies. The origins of the conflict can be traced back to the late 19th and early 20th centuries when the Zionist movement, advocating for the establishment of a Jewish homeland, gained momentum amidst the backdrop of the declining Ottoman Empire.
At the turn of the 20th century, the Middle East was undergoing significant political shifts. The crumbling Ottoman Empire allowed European powers, particularly Britain, to exert influence in the region. The Balfour Declaration of 1917, issued by the British government, expressed support for the establishment of a “national home for the Jewish people” in Palestine. This declaration laid the foundation for the Zionist aspiration of a Jewish state in historic Palestine.
Following World War I, the League of Nations granted Britain the mandate to govern Palestine. During this period, tensions between Jewish immigrants and the Arab population escalated. The 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine highlighted the growing divide and the resistance against Jewish immigration, which Arabs viewed as a threat to their national identity and land.
In 1947, the United Nations proposed a partition plan, recommending the division of Palestine into separate Jewish and Arab states, with Jerusalem as an international city. The plan was accepted by Jewish leaders but rejected by Arab leaders, leading to widespread violence.
The situation intensified in 1948 when the State of Israel was officially established. The Arab-Israeli War that followed resulted in the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Palestinians, creating a humanitarian crisis and sowing the seeds for decades of conflict.
Subsequent conflicts, including the Six-Day War in 1967 and the Yom Kippur War in 1973, further deepened hostilities and territorial disputes. The issue of Israeli settlements in the West Bank and East Jerusalem, considered illegal under international law, has been a major point of contention, hindering peace negotiations.
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